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Sign up for free and get access to exclusive content:. The tank was expected to achieve a firing rate of 10 rounds per minute in the first minute and six per minute for the following four. The first few prototypes were provided for troop trials from which identified a number of changes. Improvements to address engine vibration and cooling resulted in a redesign of the rear hull.
This increased the design weight to nearly 50 tons and accordingly the suspension which had been designed for 45 tons was strengthened. Trackpads had to be fitted to protect roads from damage and the ground clearance increased. The design was accepted in the early s. Britain and Israel had collaborated on the development in its latter stages  with a view to Israel purchasing and domestically producing the vehicle.
Two prototypes were delivered as part of a four-year trial. In , NATO had specified that its forces should use multi-fuel engines. This was further hampered by the Horstmann coil spring suspension , which made it a challenge to drive cross country and provide the crew with a comfortable ride. Due to the cylinder linings being pressure fitted, coolant leaks within the cylinder block were common, resulting in white smoke billowing from the exhaust.
In the late s, engine design changed with the introduction of Belzona which was used to improve the lining seals. This meant better performance and an increased speed. However, cross-country performance remained limited. For security reasons early prototypes had a canvas screen covering the mantlet and a sheet metal box mounted over the sloping glacis plate to disguise the configuration of the vehicle. The driver lay semi-recumbent in the hull when his hatch was closed down which helped to reduce the profile of the forward glacis plate.
The commander, gunner and loader were situated in the turret. To the left side of the turret was a large searchlight with infra-red capability in an armoured housing.
The Leyland L60 engine is a two-stroke opposed piston design intended for multi-fuel use so that it could run on whatever fuel was available. Primary problems included cylinder liner failure, fan drive problems and perpetual leaks due to vibration and badly routed pipework. However, as the engine power improved the tank itself became heavier. The tank was steered by conventional tillers hydraulically actuating onto external brake discs.
The discs worked via the epicyclic gearbox providing "regenerative" steering. In the turret, the loader was on the left and the gunner on the right of the gun with the commander situated behind the gunner. The suspension was of the Horstmann bogie type with large side steel plates to protect the tracks and provide stand-off protection from hollow charge attack. The main armament was the mm L11A5 rifled gun.
This differed from most contemporary main tank armament as it used projectiles and charges that were loaded separately, as opposed to a single fixed round. The charges were encased in combustible bags. Other tank guns such as the mm L1 gun on the Conqueror, needed to store the spent shell cartridges or eject them outside. For example, the forest-dwelling Chippewa historically built dwellings from the bark of trees, as opposed to the Great Plains -dwelling tribes, who would not have access to trees, except by trade, for example for lodgepoles.
Thus, the tribes of the Great Plains might have typically dwelt in skin-covered tipis rather than bark lodges. But some Plains tribes built their lodges of earth, as for example the Pawnee. A chief might be considered to hold all political power, say by oratory or by example. But on the North American continent, it was historically possible to evade the political power of another by migration.
The Mingos , for example, were Iroquois who migrated further west to the sparsely populated Ohio Country during the 18th century. The tribes were pacified by units of the United States Army in the nineteenth century, and were also subject to forced schooling in the decades afterward. Thus, it is uncommon for today's tribes to have a purely Native American cultural background, and today Native Americans are in many ways simply another ethnicity of the secular American people.
Because formal education is now respected, some like Peter MacDonald , a Navajo, left their jobs in the mainstream U. Also, though the fount of power might be the chief, he or she is typically not free to wield power without the consent of a council of elders of some kind. For example: Cherokee men were not permitted to go to war without the consent of the council of women. Tribal government is an official form of government in the United States,  as it is in a number of countries around the world.
Historically, the U. Be that as it may, the territory of these tribes fell under the authority of the Bureau of Indian Affairs as reservations held in trust for the tribes. Citizenship was formerly considered a tribal matter.
For example, it was not until that the Pueblo people were granted U. Mainstream Americans often find pride and comfort in realizing that at least part of their ethnic ancestry is Native American, although the connection is usually only sentimental and not economic or cultural. Thus, there is some political power in one's ability to claim a Native American connection as in the Black Seminole.
This has been imitated in many of the respective states that still have indigenous American tribes. The money that this generates has engendered some political scandal.
For example, the Tigua tribe, which fled their ancestral lands in New Mexico during the Pueblo revolt of , and who then settled on land in El Paso County, Texas , has paid  for a low probable return to the tribe because of the Jack Abramoff publicity. Many of the tribes use professional management for their money. Thus, the Mescalero Apache renovated their Inn of the Mountain Gods to include gambling as well as the previous tourism, lodging, and skiing in the older Inn.
The Navajo nation defeated bids to open casinos in , but by the Shiprock casino was a fait accompli. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Chieftain. Leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
It was powered by a Leyland L60 Mk. It was an early production version. Only 40 of these tanks were built between These tanks were used for training duties. It had exceptionally long service life. This tank was used for training until the year It was the first true operational version of the Chieftain. It had a new turret with better protection.
This tank was powered by an improved Leyland L60 Mk. This tank had a number of subvariants. It was produced between and This tank emerged in There was also provision to mount a laser rangefinder.
This tank was powered by a Leyland L60 Mk. Only 2 of these tanks were built. It was introduced in and production continued until Later Marks were upgrades of existing tanks. The Mk. This improved accuracy of the tank. The Chieftain Mk. This tank had an ammunition load of 64 rounds. In all previous British Chieftains, except the initial Mk. It was refitted with the Leyland L60 Mk. In all Chieftain Mk. It emerged in Development of this variant ended up being cancelled in favor of the Challenger.
Khalid is a Jordanian designation of the Chieftain tank. It was originally built as a Shir 1 Lion 1 for Iran. It had a modified running gear eventually it was used on the new Challenger tank. However due to Iranian revolution the order was cancelled. The tanks that were originally built for Iran eventually ended up on Jordan. Shir 2 Lion 2 was another version designed for Iran. It was the first British tank with a composite armor.
Iran made a huge order for 1 of these tanks. However the order was cancelled due to Iranian revolution. The Shir 2 tank was further reworked and became the Challenger. Chieftain was advanced variant fitted with Chobham composite armor and an improved powertrain.Indian Chieftain Thunder Black Reviews - page 2; y_, m_9, d_13, h_16; bvseo_bulk, prod_bvrr, vn_bulk_; cp_1, bvpage1; co_hasreviews, tv_0, tr_