But there was more. One country -- China -- has been holding a "commanding monopoly" over world supply, at the time about 95 percent of the market, and things weren't going to change soon. The light bulb went off. Here was something that touched people's lives not just in their everyday use televisions, smartphones, tablets, computers, stereos, cars , but also had implications for U.
A little more digging revealed that the U. I wanted to know how that happened and what it all meant. Here were good questions for our 60 Minutes story.
My colleague, Graham Messick, and I set out to find the answers. In doing so, we quickly found reporting on rare earths to be especially challenging. To begin with, we had to learn how rare earths are different from other metals and minerals -- like iron or copper.
What makes them rare? However, in , China accounted for more than 90 percent of world production of REEs, and by , China accounted for 97 percent of world production.
Beginning in and beyond, supplies of REEs became an issue as the Government of China began to change the amount of the REEs that it allows to be produced and exported. Skip to main content. PDF version. Information on this page was collected from the source acknowledged below:.
Atlanta Rhythm Section. Walk Away. James Gang. Born To Be Wild. Spinning Wheel. Mississippi Queen. Three Dog Night. Spill The Wine. I'd Love to Change the World Remaster. The separation of thorium from the rare earths is quite complicated because the solubilities of both the thorium and the rare earths vary with temperature and acidity. At very low and intermediate acidities no separation is possible.
At low acidity the thorium phosphate precipitates out of solution, and rare-earth sulfates remain in solution, while at high acidity the reverse occurs—the rare-earth sulfate is insoluble, and thorium is soluble.
After the thorium has been removed from the rare earths, the latter are used as a mixed concentrate or are further processed for the individual elements see below. After the addition of water , the soluble sodium phosphate Na 3 PO 4 is recovered as a by-product from the insoluble R OH 3 , which still contains 5—10 percent thorium. Two different methods may be used to remove the thorium.
The thorium-free rare-earth solution is converted to the hydrated chloride, carbonate, or hydroxide and sold as a mixed concentrate, or it can be used as the starting material for separating the individual elements see below. The rare-earth separation processes in use today were developed during and shortly after World War II at several U. Both groups showed that the ion -exchange process would work at least on a small scale for separating rare earths.
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Classic Rock , Pop Rock. Leon September 20, Classic Rock. The Beatles.Limited digitally remastered edition vinyl replica edition of this CD housed in a mini LP sleeve with obi strip including mini LP artwork that replicates original outer jacket and inner sleeve. Rare Earth in Concert is a live album by rock band Rare Earth, which was released as a double-LP in /5(86).