I can relate the snake story to you because my hippocampus linked together the various aspects of that experience— sensations in my body, emotions, thoughts, facts, reflections— into a lived- in- time set of recollections. The hippocampus develops gradually during our early years and continues to grow new connections and even new neurons throughout our lives.
As we mature, the hippocampus weaves the basic forms of emotional and perceptual memory into factual and auto — biographical recollections, laying the foundation for my ability to tell you about that long- ago snake encounter in the Sierras.
However, this uniquely human storytelling ability also depends upon the development of the highest part of the brain, the cortex. The cortex creates more intricate firing patterns that represent the three- dimensional world beyond the bodily functions and survival reactions mediated by the lower, subcortical regions.
In humans, the more elaborate frontal portion of the cortex allows us to have ideas and concepts and to develop the mindsight maps that give us insight into the inner world. The frontal cortex actually makes neural firing patterns that represent its own representations. In other words, it allows us to think about thinking. The good news is that this gives us humans new capacities to think— to imagine, to recombine facts and experiences, to create. The burden is that at times these new capacities allow us to think too much.
The cortex is folded into convoluted hills and valleys, which brain scientists have divided into regions they call lobes. On your hand model, the back or posterior cortex extends from your second knuckle counting from the fingertips to the back of your hand, and includes the occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes. The posterior cortex is the master mapmaker of our physical experience, generating our perceptions of the outer world— through the five senses— and also keeping track of the location and movement of our physical body through touch and motion perception.
The amazingly adaptive perceptual functions of the back of the cortex have embedded that object into your body- maps so that it is neurally experienced like an extension of your body. This is how we can drive rapidly on a freeway or park a car in a tight space, use a scalpel with precision, or attain a. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website.
Cancel Continue. It also controls vision, hearing and other senses. The cerebrum is divided two cerebral hemispheres halves : left and right. The right half controls the left side of the body. The left half controls the right side of the body. Each hemisphere has four sections, called lobes: frontal , parietal , temporal and occipital. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special properties. The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements.
When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum. The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements.
When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games. The cerebrum is split into two halves hemispheres by a deep fissure. Despite the split, the two cerebral hemispheres communicate with each other through a thick tract of nerve fibers that lies at the base of this fissure.
Although the two hemispheres seem to be mirror images of each other, they are different. For instance, the ability to form words seems to lie primarily in the left hemisphere, while the right hemisphere seems to control many abstract reasoning skills. For some as-yet-unknown reason, nearly all of the signals from the brain to the body and vice-versa cross over on their way to and from the brain. This means that the right cerebral hemisphere primarily controls the left side of the body and the left hemisphere primarily controls the right side.
When one side of the brain is damaged, the opposite side of the body is affected. For example, a stroke in the right hemisphere of the brain can leave the left arm and leg paralyzed. The researchers also reported that brain development was the same in children with or without ADHD. The study also found that certain areas of the brain were smaller in children with more severe ADHD symptoms.
These areas, such as the frontal lobes, are involved in:. Researchers also looked at the differences in white and grey matter in children with and without ADHD. White matter consists of axons, or nerve fibers. Grey matter is the outer layer of the brain. Researchers found that people with ADHD may have different neural pathways in areas of the brain involved in:. These different pathways might partly explain why people with ADHD often have behavioral issues and learning difficulties.
One study found that gender was reflected in the results of performance tests measuring inattention and impulsivity. The tests results showed that boys tend to experience more impulsivity than girls. There was no difference in inattention symptoms between boys and girls. In fact, when the repetitions are spaced less than about 25 milliseconds apart, the brain cannot anticipate them and therefore suppress them. It is constantly on alert and attentive to the stimulus. The researchers then attempted to find out what actually happens in the brain: why are these harsh sounds so unbearable?
When the sound is perceived as continuous above Hz , the auditory cortex in the upper temporal lobe is activated. But when sounds are perceived as harsh especially between 40 and 80 Hz , they induce a persistent response that additionally recruits a large number of cortical and sub-cortical regions that are not part of the conventional auditory system. This explains why participants experienced them as being unbearable," says Arnal, who was surprised to learn that these regions were involved in processing sounds.Jul 21, · Subtle drops in DTI FA in 6 of 56 brain ROIs, most notably the SLF, are suggestive of disruption of white matter integrity. The SLF has also been previously found to be affected in chronic 27, – 29 as well as subacute mTBI. 30, 31 One study, however, reported that SLF changes may be associated with comorbid depression independent of mTBI in.