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Like soul, funk is based on dance music , so it has a strong "rhythmic role". Before funk, most pop music was based on sequences of eighth notes, because the fast tempos made further subdivisions of the beat infeasible. Together, these "interlocking parts" created a "hypnotic" and "danceable feel".
New Orleans appropriated the bifurcated structure from the Afro-Cuban mambo and conga in the late s, and made it its own. Funk uses the same richly colored extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths. Some examples of chords used in funk are minor eleventh chords e. However, unlike bebop jazz, with its complex, rapid-fire chord changes, funk virtually abandoned chord changes, creating static single chord vamps often alternating a minor seventh chord and a related dominant seventh chord, such as A minor to D7 with melodo-harmonic movement and a complex, driving rhythmic feel.
Even though some funk songs are mainly one-chord vamps, the rhythm section musicians may embellish this chord by moving it up or down a semitone or a tone to create chromatic passing chords. The chords used in funk songs typically imply a Dorian or Mixolydian mode , as opposed to the major or natural minor tonalities of most popular music. Melodic content was derived by mixing these modes with the blues scale.
In the s, jazz music drew upon funk to create a new subgenre of jazz-funk , which can be heard in recordings by Miles Davis Live-Evil , On the Corner , and Herbie Hancock Head Hunters. Funk continues the African musical tradition of improvisation , in that in a funk band, the group would typically "feel" when to change, by "jamming" and "grooving", even in the studio recording stage, which might only be based on the skeleton framework for each song.
Funk creates an intense groove by using strong guitar riffs and basslines played on electric bass. Like Motown recordings, funk songs use basslines as the centerpiece of songs. Indeed, funk has been called the style in which the bassline is most prominent in the songs,  with the bass playing the "hook" of the song.
Funk basslines emphasize repetitive patterns, locked-in grooves, continuous playing, and slap and popping bass. Slapping and popping uses a mixture of thumb-slapped low notes also called "thumped" and finger "popped" or plucked high notes, allowing the bass to have a drum-like rhythmic role, which became a distinctive element of funk. Funk bass has an "earthy, percussive kind of feel", in part due to the use of muted, rhythmic ghost notes  also called "dead notes". Funk drumming creates a groove by emphasizing the drummer's "feel and emotion", which including "occasional tempo fluctuations", the use of swing feel in some songs e.
James Brown used two drummers such as Clyde Stubblefield and John 'Jabo' Starks in recording and soul show  By using two drummers, the JB band was able to maintain a "solid syncopated" rhythmic sound, which contributed to the band's distinctive "Funky Drummer" rhythm. Jim Payne states that funk drumming uses a "wide-open" approach to improvisation around rhythmic ideas from Latin music, ostinatos , that are repeated "with only slight variations", an approach which he says causes the "mesmerizing" nature of funk.
In funk, guitarists often mix playing chords of a short duration nicknamed "stabs" with faster rhythms and riffs. The two guitarists trade off their lines to create a " call-and-response , intertwined pocket. The technique can be broken down into three approaches: the "chika", the "chank" and the "choke". With the "chika" comes a muted sound of strings being hit against the fingerboard; "chank" is a staccato attack done by releasing the chord with the fretting hand after strumming it; and "choking" generally uses all the strings being strummed and heavily muted.
The result of these factors was a rhythm guitar sound that seemed to float somewhere between the low-end thump of the electric bass and the cutting tone of the snare and hi-hats , with a rhythmically melodic feel that fell deep in the pocket. Guitarist Jimmy Nolen , longtime guitarist for James Brown, developed this technique. The pattern of attack-points is the emphasis, not the pattern of pitches.
The guitar is used the way that an African drum, or idiophone would be used. Nolen created a "clean, trebly tone" by using "hollow-body jazz guitars with single-coil P pickups" plugged into a Fender Twin Reverb amp with the mid turned down low and the treble turned up high.
Funk guitarists playing rhythm guitar generally avoid distortion effects and amp overdrive to get a clean sound, and given the importance of a crisp, high sound, Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters were widely used for their cutting treble tone.
Guitarist Eddie Hazel from Funkadelic is notable for his solo improvisation partiularly for the solo on " Maggot Brain " and guitar riffs, the tone of which was shaped by a Maestro FZ-1 Fuzz-Tone pedal.
Ernie Isley was tutored at an early age by Hendrix, when Hendrix was a part of the Isley Brothers backing band and temporarily lived in the Isleys' household. Funk guitarists use the wah-wah sound effect along with muting the notes to create a percussive sound for their guitar riffs. A range of keyboard instruments are used in funk.
Synthesizers were used in funk both to add to the deep sound of the electric bass, or even to replace the electric bass altogether in some songs.
In the s, funk used many of the same vocal styles that were used in African-American music in the s, including singing influences from blues, gospel, jazz and doo-wop. As funk emerged from soul, the vocals in funk share soul's approach; however, funk vocals tend to be "more punctuated, energetic, rhythmically percussive[,] and less embellished" with ornaments, and the vocal lines tend to resemble horn parts and have "pushed" rhythms.
The lyrics in funk music addressed issues faced by the African American community in the United States during the s, which arose due to the move away from an industrial, working-class economy to an information economy, which harmed the Black working class.
The Funkadelic song " One Nation Under A Groove " is about the challenges that Blacks overcame during the s civil rights movement, and it includes an exhortation for Blacks in the s to capitalize on the new "social and political opportunities" that had become available in the s. The political themes of funk songs and the aiming of the messages to a Black audience echoed the new image of Blacks that was created in Blaxploitation films, which depicted "African-American men and women standing their ground and fighting for what was right".
Funk songs included metaphorical language that was understood best by listeners who were "familiar with the black aesthetic and [black] vernacular". In the s, to get around radio obscenity restrictions, funk artists would use words that sounded like non-allowed words and double entendres to get around these restrictions.
Horn section arrangements with groups of brass instruments are often used in funk songs. Funk horn sections performed in a "rhythmic percussive style" that mimicked the approach used by funk rhythm guitarists. The instruments in funk horn sections varied. If there were two brass instruments, it could be trumpet and tenor sax, trumpet and trombone, or two saxes. Quintets would typically take a pair of brass instruments saxes or trumpets , and add different high and low brass instruments.
With six instruments, a brass section would typically be two pairs of brass instruments plus a trombone and baritone sax holding down the bottom end. In bands or shows where hiring a horn section is not feasible, a keyboardist can play the horn section parts on a synthesizer with "keyboard brass patches", however, choosing an authentic-sounding synthesizer and brass patch is important.
Funk bands in the s adopted Afro-American fashion and style, including " Bell-bottom pants , platform shoes, hoop earring[s], Afros [hairstyles], leather vests, Funk allowed everyday experiences to be expressed to challenge daily struggles and hardships fought by lower and working class communities. Gerhard Kubik notes that with the exception of New Orleans , early blues lacked complex polyrhythms , and there was a "very specific absence of asymmetric time-line patterns key patterns in virtually all early twentieth century African-American music These do not function in the same way as African time lines.
In the late s this changed somewhat when the two-celled time line structure was brought into New Orleans blues. Robert Palmer reports that, in the s, Professor Longhair listened to and played with musicians from the islands and "fell under the spell of Perez Prado 's mambo records. Longhair's rhythmic approach became a basic template of funk.
According to Dr. Longhair's thing had a direct bearing I'd say on a large portion of the funk music that evolved in New Orleans. Alexander Stewart states: "Eventually, musicians from outside of New Orleans began to learn some of the rhythmic practices [of the Crescent City]. Most important of these were James Brown and the drummers and arrangers he employed.
In a related development, the underlying rhythms of American popular music underwent a basic, yet generally unacknowledged transition from triplet or shuffle feel to even or straight eighth notes. By the mids, James Brown had developed his signature groove that emphasized the downbeat —with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure to etch his distinctive sound, rather than the backbeat that typified African-American music.
Brown's style of funk was based on interlocking, contrapuntal parts: syncopated basslines , 16th beat drum patterns, and syncopated guitar riffs. On "Ain't it Funky" the tonal structure is barebones.
Brown's innovations led to him and his band becoming the seminal funk act; they also pushed the funk music style further to the forefront with releases such as " Cold Sweat " , " Mother Popcorn " and " Get Up I Feel Like Being A Sex Machine " , discarding even the twelve-bar blues featured in his earlier music.
Instead, Brown's music was overlaid with "catchy, anthemic vocals" based on "extensive vamps" in which he also used his voice as "a percussive instrument with frequent rhythmic grunts and with rhythm-section patterns Ellis credits Clyde Stubblefield 's adoption of New Orleans drumming techniques, as the basis of modern funk: "If, in a studio, you said 'play it funky' that could imply almost anything.
But 'give me a New Orleans beat' — you got exactly what you wanted. And Clyde Stubblefield was just the epitome of this funky drumming. In a interview, Brown offered his reason for switching the rhythm of his music: "I changed from the upbeat to the downbeat Simple as that, really.
Reflecting back to his early days with Brown's band, Parker reported that he had difficulty playing "on the one" during solo performances, since he was used to hearing and playing with the accent on the second beat.
A new group of musicians began to further develop the "funk rock" approach. Innovations were prominently made by George Clinton , with his bands Parliament and Funkadelic. Together, they produced a new kind of funk sound heavily influenced by jazz and psychedelic rock. The two groups shared members and are often referred to collectively as "Parliament-Funkadelic. Clinton played a principal role in several other bands, including Parlet , the Horny Horns, and the Brides of Funkenstein, all part of the P-Funk conglomerate.
Following the work of Jimi Hendrix in the late s, artists such as Sly and the Family Stone combined the psychedelic rock of Hendrix with funk, borrowing wah pedals , fuzz boxes , echo chambers , and vocal distorters from the former, as well as blues rock and jazz. Other musical groups picked up on the rhythms and vocal style developed by James Brown and his band, and the funk style began to grow. Dyke and the Blazers , based in Phoenix, Arizona , released " Funky Broadway " in , perhaps the first record of the soul music era to have the word "funky" in the title.
In Jimmy McGriff released Electric Funk , featuring his distinctive organ over a blazing horn section. Their debut album East Bay Grease , released , is considered an important milestone in funk.
Throughout the s, TOP had many hits, and the band helped to make funk music a successful genre, with a broader audience. Notably, these afforded the group and the genre crossover success and greater recognition, yet such success escaped comparatively talented and moderately popular funk band peers.
The Temptations , who had previously helped to define the " Motown Sound" — a distinct blend of pop-soul — adopted this new psychedelic sound towards the end of the s as well. The s were the era of highest mainstream visibility for funk music. Disco music owed a great deal to funk. Many early disco songs and performers came directly from funk-oriented backgrounds.
In , Rose Royce scored a number-one hit with a purely dance-funk record, " Car Wash ". Even with the arrival of disco, funk became increasingly popular well into the early s.
Funk music was also exported to Africa, and it melded with African singing and rhythms to form Afrobeat. Nigerian musician Fela Kuti , who was heavily influenced by James Brown's music, is credited with creating the style and terming it "Afrobeat".
Jazz-funk is a subgenre of jazz music characterized by a strong back beat groove , electrified sounds  and an early prevalence of analog synthesizers.
Similar genres include soul jazz and jazz fusion , but neither entirely overlap with jazz-funk. In the s, at the same time that jazz musicians began to explore blending jazz with rock to create jazz fusion , major jazz performers began to experiment with funk.
Jazz-funk recordings typically used electric bass and electric piano in the rhythm section, in place of the double bass and acoustic piano that were typically used in jazz up till that point. Pianist and bandleader Herbie Hancock was the first of many big jazz artists who embraced funk during the decade.
Hancock's Headhunters band played the jazz-funk style. The Headhunters' lineup and instrumentation, retaining only wind player Bennie Maupin from Hancock's previous sextet, reflected his new musical direction.
He used percussionist Bill Summers in addition to a drummer. On the Corner was jazz trumpeter-composer Miles Davis  's seminal foray into jazz-funk. Like his previous works though, On the Corner was experimental. Davis stated that On the Corner was an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tanpura and tablas , and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape.
Both sides of the record featured heavy funk drum and bass grooves, with the melodic parts snipped from hours of jams and mixed in the studio. Also cited as musical influences on the album by Davis were the contemporary composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. In the s, largely as a reaction against what was seen as the over-indulgence of disco , many of the core elements that formed the foundation of the P-Funk formula began to be usurped by electronic instruments , drum machines and synthesizers.
Horn sections of saxophones and trumpets were replaced by synth keyboards , and the horns that remained were given simplified lines, and few horn solos were given to soloists. Electronic drum machines such as the Roland TR , Linn LM-1 , and Oberheim DMX began to replace the " funky drummers " of the past, and the slap and pop style of bass playing were often replaced by synth keyboard basslines.
Lyrics of funk songs began to change from suggestive double entendres to more graphic and sexually explicit content. Rick James was the first funk musician of the s to assume the funk mantle dominated by P-Funk in the s. Description : I recorded Rob on his guitar, check his beats on soundcloud sorry it's coming out left mainly, you'll need to fix it. Description : Contact me via instagram only!!
Description : Funky Arp, there are two other parts. For the parts not on Looperman Vox and Lead and other exclusive loops, click on my profile picture and download the free sample pack - Ethereal.
Description : Live funky guitar, loop in C-F, Bpm. If you use it, come back and tell me - I always appreciate it! Description : A clavinet plays a percussive, highly-swung groove in the 's Disco style. Bright and sharp, I'll let you EQ it. Harmonies: AbmajGb So simple but so funky. If you use this loop, show me your work. Register Log In.
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Tags : bpm Trap Loops Arpeggio Loops 2. Description : A bass guitar plucks out an oldschool Funk riff.Funky soul piano royalty free music track featuring vintage organ X. FREE License with Attribution. You can use this music for free in your multimedia project (online videos (Youtube, Facebook,), websites, animations, etc.) as long as you credit kasupptomalecga.erecriconfutaravareclaconna.co (in the description for a video).